Thursday, April 16, 2015

2015 QRP To the Field

The official rules for QRP To the Field have been posted. 

Monday, March 16, 2015

Muskegon County Walking Challenge

Muskegon County Generational Walking Challenge encourages all ages to get active.

Has the winter kept you cooped up indoors for too long? Has it become difficult to climb the stairs? Have the kids been spending more time online than enjoying the fresh air? Health and recreation partners in Muskegon County are hosting an eight-week Generational Walking Challenge this spring to get all ages active in the great outdoors.

The Generational Walking Challenge will begin Monday, April 6, with a kick-off event at the Snug Harbor day-use area of Muskegon State Park. Bring the family to register for the walking challenge, then check out fitness presentations, free health screenings from the Health Project and information about local trails and parks. 

“This is part of the large partnership to promote healthy lifestyles using Michigan state parks and recreation areas as part of the ‘Big Green Gym’ program,” said Ron Olson, chief of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources' Parks and Recreation Division.

"This short-term commitment can have a lifetime of benefits, and it all starts with the first step,” said Ann Conklin, chief operating officer for Michigan Recreation and Parks Association.

Registration for the challenge also is available by emailing All registered participants will receive a form to track their activity during the challenge. 

Muskegon State Park will host a weekly walk Mondays at 5 p.m. (meeting at Snug Harbor) to help participants complete their walking goals. The Generational Walking Challenge also encourages people to get out to local parks and trails and get active with running, bicycling and more. 

At the end of eight weeks, on May 9, participants can turn in their activity-tracking forms for a chance to win prizes. The grand prize for the family or group that logs the most minutes of activity is a two-night stay at Muskegon State Park’s yurt (limit seven people per team). P.J. Hoffmaster State Park will host a completion celebration Friday, May 29, at 5 p.m. Completion celebration attendees also can get information about other active living opportunities and resources in Muskegon and around Michigan. 


“This event not only gets people active, but it’s also a chance to spend time with loved ones,” said Elissa Buck, recreation programmer for the Michigan DNR. “It’s a great way for residents to explore Michigan’s parks and trails with their family and friends, and maybe start a new family activity tradition.”

This program is funded by the Department of Community Health's Active Living Grant, in partnership with Michigan Recreation and Park Association and the Michigan DNR. Other partners include the Health Project, EcoTrek Fitness and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan

For more information about the Generational Walking Challenge, please contact Elissa Buck at 989-313-0000 or email

Inside Michigan’s Great Outdoors subscribers are always the first to know about reservation opportunities, state park events and other outdoor happenings. Visit to subscribe now.

There is no charge to participate in the Generational Walking Challenge, but a Recreation Passport is required for vehicle entry to Muskegon State Park and P.J. Hoffmaster State Park for the kick-off event, weekly walks and the completion celebration.

A Recreation Passport grants vehicle access to any Michigan state park, boat launch, state forest campground or nonmotorized state trailhead parking. Residents can purchase the Passport for just $11 ($5 for motorcycles) at the time of Michigan license plate renewal through Secretary of State. Forgot to check “YES” during renewal? Residents and nonresidents can purchase a Recreation Passport window sticker during regular business hours at state parks. Learn more about how the Recreation Passport supports state parks and local outdoor recreation opportunities at


Wednesday, February 11, 2015

Propagation: Realtime Band Conditions Web-Site

REALTIME BAND CONDITIONS WEB SITE is a new experimental website designed to provide 24 hour a day, 7 day a week, 365 day a year real time band condition information to SSB, contesters and other operators interested in increasing their scores. It can also be of benefit to other Radio Amateurs to determine band conditions for nets and casual QSO's. 

This information is not based on any software predictions or any kind of satellite based readings. Instead it uses a new Ionospheric sounding method called "HF Ionospheric Interferometry" which operates very similarly to the PolSAR system used by NASA. Its in cybderspace at  (OPDX)

FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler to Lead Fight to Maintain Net Neutrality

FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler confirmed on Wednesday, February 3rd that he intends to bring wired and wireless broadband services under utility-style rules based on Title II of the Communications Act of 1934. He said Title II would bring to end the debate over how to ensure that the Internet remains open to everyone, a concept known as Net neutrality.

In an op-ed published Wednesday on, Wheeler said the new rules will ban paid prioritization. Thats the idea that an Internet company can pay a premium to ensure that its traffic gets to the consumer faster than everyone else's.

Wheeler also said he would reinstate rules that had been part of the previous open Internet regulation, which went into effect in 2010, but was overruled last year by a federal appeals court, leading to the current situation. The previous rules banned an Internet service provider from blocking traffic or slowing down access to content on the Internet to favor their own services.

Title II of the Communications Act holds the potential to radically change how the Internet is governed by giving the FCC unprecedented authority over it. The provision originally gave the FCC the power to set rates and enforce the "common carrier" principle, or the idea that every customer is treated fairly, on telephone service. FCC Chairman Wheeler hopes to apply that principle to Internet traffic, preventing broadband providers from favoring one bit of data over another.

Net Neutrality is important in all aspects of today's society including amateur radio since more and more emerging communications technologies are dependent on it. And in the years ahead it will be even more so.

ARRL Legislative Objectives Announced

he ARRL has made public some of its legislative objectives for the coming 114th Congressional year. 

The League says that it will continue to secure passage of legislation instructing the FCC to extend the requirement for “reasonable accommodation” of Amateur Radio station antennas to all forms of land-use regulation. The League also will continue to oppose legislation leading to the reallocation of amateur spectrum, or to sharing arrangements that reduce the utility of existing allocations. Any legislation that diminishes the rights of federal licensees in favor of unlicensed emitters, or that encourages the deployment of spectrum-polluting technologies will also be opposed by the League.

Among the other objectives, the ARRL will seek recognition of the unique resources, capabilities, and expertise of the Amateur Radio Service in any legislation addressing communications issues related to emergencies, disasters, or homeland security. 

The League says it will support complementary legislative objectives of other radio communication services, particularly the public safety and scientific services that require spectrum access and protection from interference for noncommercial purposes that benefit the public. 

Support will also be given to legislation authorizing the FCC to appoint an electrical engineer or scientist as an additional staff member to ensure the Commissioners have adequate access to technical expertise when making decisions.

The ARRL continues to oppose “distracted driving” legislation that does not clearly define the class of devices included in the regulation, so as to exclude two-way mobile radio transmitters or receivers used by Amateur Radio licensees.

Source: ARRL

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Michigan: Critical Pro-Gun Legislation to Receive Hearings Today

Today, the House Judiciary Committee will hear testimony on multiple pro-gun bills at 12:00 P.M. in Room 521 of the House Office Building.  Included on the agenda are Senate Bills 3435 and the “Air Gun Reclassification Package.”

SB 34 and SB 35 are comprehensive concealed pistol licensing reforms which both seek to create a more efficient, expedient and uniform concealed pistol licensing process for all statutorily eligible Michiganders (i.e. individuals not prohibited under 28.425b and who satisfy all financial and submission obligations).  These two bills are replicas of last session’s Senate Bills 789 and 790, which passed the legislature with bipartisan support but unfortunately fell victim to misinformation spread by out-of-state gun control organizations resulting in a veto by Governor Snyder.  The NRA has worked to ensure that these crucial reforms once again have the opportunity to pass through the Michigan Legislature.  

As previously reported, House Bills 41514152415341544155 and 4156 are a set of bills which make up the “Air Gun Reclassification Package.”  This important legislative package seeks to achieve pragmatic and much-needed reform by redefining the term “firearm” in the Michigan Code to exclude devices that propel a projectile by gas, spring or air.  The goal of this package is to relieve Michiganders, and those seeking to engage in interstate commerce with Michigan residents, from outdated and unduly burdensome restraints on the transfer, purchase and possession of most air guns.

These bills are important fixes to current Michigan firearms policy.  Please contact members of the House Judiciary Committee and your state Representative TODAY and politely request that they support Senate Bills 34, 35 and the Air Gun Reclassification Package.

House Judiciary Committee Members:

Representative Klint Kesto (R-39), Chairman
(517) 373-1799  

Representative Peter Lucido (R-36), Majority Vice Chairman
(517) 373-0843

Representative Jeff Irwin (D-53), Minority Vice Chairman
(517) 373-2577

Representative Kurt Heise (R-20)
(517) 373-3816

Representative Joel Johnson (R-97)
(517) 373-8962

Representative Martin Howrylak (R-41)
(517) 373-1783

Representative Triston Cole (R-105)
(517) 373-0829

Representative Jim Runestad (R-44)
(517) 373-2616

Representative Rose Mary Robinson (D-4)
(517) 373-1008

Representative Stephanie Chang (D-6)
(517) 373-0823

Representative Vanessa  Guerra (D-95)
(517) 373-0152 

Source: NRA

Thursday, February 5, 2015

Isotron Antennas some Info & (My Thoughts)

I really like the Isotron Antennas.
I've used a few of them many times. They make a great field day or camping antenna and I have a few friends who use them as their base antennas at home.
I get a news letter from Isotron Antenna on a regular basis and thought I'd share the one I received today.


This question is asked quite frequently. Actually what many want to know is, how low to mount the antenna to where it will still work?

There is much to learn about HF propagation. However, a few basics can help to achieve good results.

On VHF and higher you can go by the rule, "the higher the better". This is a ground wave transmission. You can liken it to line of sight. If you were to raise yourself above ground, you would see a farther distance to the horizon. So will the ground wave. On VHF, this will increase the performance in distance. Actually on VHF in particular, it is more forgiving and will bend with the terrain somewhat. This is a reason for using VHF for police and fire in rural areas. We are referring to distances of 10 to 15 miles car to car (depending on power) and as much as 100 miles through a repeater at a very high altitude.

What happens at the HF frequencies? A lot!

HF is normally used for much longer distances than the VHF ground wave. Therefore, where do you start and what factors affect it?

There is one thing to keep in mind. HF radiation rarely reflects. Due to the low frequency, there is insufficient inductance in objects to make it reflect. However, there are other factors that affect HF.

We can start with what you are walking on. The soil conditions of the earth varies per location. Conductivity and various minerals in the soil affect HF communications.

Depending on this chemistry will determine how much HF radiation will be absorbed and not leave the antenna site. What do you look for?

If the antenna is very low to the ground, you can observe the performance. Tuning of the antenna is one factor. Is the antenna reacting peculiar? Minimum SWR a bit too high? If measured, is the impedance of the antenna very low. Possibly receiving performance has deteriorated severely. 

Another check is measuring SWR at low power as compared to high power. If at low power the SWR is closer to normal and high power it increases a lot, then a nearby object is most likely having an affect. Like the earth. Radiation can be absorbed and due to a transformer affect radiate some back into the antenna or possibly the feedline laying on it. This will increase the SWR and can make the antenna very narrow in bandwidth.

If this is the case, Raising the antenna even a few feet will make a change toward normal functioning of the antenna.

We can usually use the same rule as VHF,"the higher the better". However, when you are limited in what you can do, you will want to know the minimum you can get away with. HF will start performing reasonably well if you can get sufficient height from your ground absorption factor. On the average, 20 feet will do it. Some areas are more forgiving and some areas are worse. You will get indications of it by taking note of the readings mentioned.

Next article will continue on this subject.


Ralph WD0EJA

FEB. 2015



Friday, January 16, 2015

CBS Will Air Stamp Collecting Segment

Exciting news – for the first time in its 36-year history, CBS Sunday Morning will air a segment on stamp collecting!  The show is scheduled to run on Sunday, January 18th, at 9 a.m. Eastern Standard Time.  As a collector, you may want to watch.
Correspondent Rita Braver interviewed several leading members of our hobby, including Ken Martin of the APS, organizers of World Stamp Show-NY 2016, Bill Gross and outgoing Postmaster General Patrick Donahoe.  In addition to visiting the National Postal Museum’s William H. Gross Gallery, Braver and her film crew also attended a Collector’s Club Youth Stamp Club meeting.  According to reports, vintage background footage showing stamps will be part of the segment, too.
It will be fun to see collecting in the news.  Plus I feel a personal connection to the story.  As you recall, Mystic owned the 1¢ Z Grill and traded it with Bill Gross for the Jenny Invert Plate Number Block.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Governor Snyder signs Senate Bill 493. now PA 556

With just one day left, Governor Snyder signed Senate Bill 493, 
essentially a Michigan PRB-1

The announcement is here:,4668,7-277-57577_57657-345450--,00.html

Scroll down a ways to see SB 493

Note, PA 556 has not been loaded up to the state website yet:

A HUGE thank you to all who wrote and emailed their support.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

PRB-1 Last Minute Call to Action

Senate Bill 0493 was presented to Governor Snyder at 10:08 AM on January
2, 2015. He has until 10:08 AM on January 16 to sign it in order for it
to become law.

As of this writing (8:00 PM) on January 12, 2015 our bill (along with
many others) has not been signed by the Governor. We are down to the
final days and we need your help.

This call to action is for those Michigan amateurs and other interested
parties that HAVE NOT yet contacted the Governor’s via email or the
Governor’s website to make that contact. If you have already
expressed your opinion by web site and telephone, thank you. You have
done your job.

Duplicate requests by the same medium do not help our cause. Each of us
can use each method once.

If you have called on the telephone, but not sent a request via the
website, by all means use the website medium and vice-versa. Be sure
that you have made contact by both mediums.

Michigan family members and friends of voting age, ham or non-ham can

Our message is simple: “I respectfully encourage Governor Snyder to
sign Senate Bill 493.” There is no need to add anything to the
message as additional information gets in the way of what we want to
get across at this point.

This message needs to be sent via email at: 

This web site will take you a form to be filled out. Easy to do and
painless. No need to compose your comments. For the bill category, use
"Other/Unknown" and simply insert the provided verbiage.

By telephone at 517-335-7858, simply tell the person answering the
phone (or leave a message if calling after hours) “this is (your
name) and I am a resident of (your city, town, village, or township)
and I respectfully encourage Governor Snyder to sign Senate Bill

After contacting the Governor's Office, please send a note to and advising us that you made contact
with them. 

We are very hopeful that this will accomplish our goal and get our bill
signed into law.  

Thank you for your assistance and I look forward to giving you good
news in the coming days.


Larry, WB8R

ARRL Michigan Section
Section Manager: Larry Camp, WB8R

Michigan: Contact Governor Snyder Now and Urge Him to Sign SB 789 into Law

It is imperative that you contact Governor Rick Snyder (R) today and urge him to sign Senate Bill 789 into law. Anti-gun organizations are attempting to use their money and influence to force Governor Snyder to veto this important pro-gun legislation.  It is important that you contact Governor Snyder and respectfully urge him to stand up for your Second Amendment rights and sign SB 789 before Friday, January 16th.

Senate Bill 789, which passed the legislature by significant margins, seeks to create a more efficient and uniform concealed pistol licensing process for all Michiganders. The NRA, along with other pro-Second Amendment organizations and numerous law-enforcement officials, support the signing of SB 789.

Last year, SB 789 proceeded through the legislative process without serious opposition. The bill was posted for public consumption. Hearings were held to allow for public testimony. Stakeholder concerns were voiced and their opinions were addressed. Now, only after the bill has passed the legislature and is sitting on the Governor’s desk, groups that were given nearly a year to publicly voice their concerns are attacking this legislation based on misinformation about its content.

Over the past two weeks, numerous media outlets and anti-gun organizations have attacked SB 789 based on a false assertion that the bill requires concealed pistol licenses to be issued to persons subject to personal protection orders for domestic violence or stalking. This statement and belief, whether genuine or manufactured, grossly misrepresents the contents of the bill and current Michigan law regarding personal protection orders. Simply put, if an individual is a domestic-abuser and has been charged or convicted as such, or a judge has made a determination that the individual should not be allowed to purchase or possess a firearm, that person will be prohibited from receiving a concealed pistol license under SB 789. No exceptions.

Furthermore, these anti-gun organizations are purposely omitting the fact that SB 789 was written to provide enhanced protections for victims of domestic violence. Under the proposed law, an individual who petitions the court system for a personal protection order automatically qualifies for a temporary, emergency concealed pistol license. The NRA advocated for this provision and supports it based on the belief that victims of these heinous acts should be able to avail themselves of all legally available methods to ensure their personal safety and the safety of threatened family members. 

We hope that you will join the NRA in supporting SB 789. Please contact Governor Snyder and respectfully urge him to sign SB 789 into law. Let him know that the opinions of out-of-state, anti-gun elitists are not welcome, nor are they appreciated in Michigan.

Governor Rick Snyder

Monday, November 3, 2014


This is an important UPDATE 

As this PRB-1 drama unfolds with the Michigan House of Representatives,
we find ourselves reacting to breaking news. This happens as a result
of the House currently not being in session. Nothing is official and
everything is speculative. 

As you will remember, we just started a letter writing campaign which
targeted the members of the Committee that we were told would be
handling our bill. Things change and it now appears that we will deal
with different committee.

Don’t think that all of those letters that we sent to the first
committee members were sent in vain. Nothing could be further from the
truth. Each of those representatives are now aware of our bill and
aware that there are a lot of amateur radio operators that have an
interest in having SB 0493 pass out of committee and out of the House
itself. No wasted letters here.

It is time to shift gears. 

Please go to our PRB-1 website at

Click on the ‘Sample Letters’ tab and click on ‘House of
Representatives’ and enter your information to locate your
representative’s website. Back on the Sample Letters tab, scroll down
to Sample House Letter. Copy the letter and paste it into your
Representative’s email form. 

Be sure to add the Representative’s information as well as your
information at the end of the letter to personalize the document.
Sometimes it is easier to copy the letter from our website and paste it
into a word processor to get it prepared and then paste into the
Representative’s email form.

Once again, please send a copy of what you send to and

Thank you for all of your efforts and with your help we can accomplish
this important task.


Saturday, November 1, 2014

False FEMA Alert Message


AT&T has confirmed that it accidentally relayed an incorrect emergency alert message from the Federal Emergency Management Agency to its U-verse customers in parts of Georgia, Texas, Tennessee, Michigan and Mississippi.

The alert messages began popping up on screens around 10 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on October 24th. Red banners appeared the television screens of viewers in the affected areas alerting them to stand by for an important message.  

Soon after the incident FEMA spokesperson Rafael Lemaitre stated that there had been an inappropriate playing of the national emergency alert notification tones on a syndicated radio broadcast. He went on to state that there is not a national emergency but that the broadcast triggered alert notification in states where it had been played. Lemaitre said his agency was working with the FCC to quantify the scale of the incident.

Source (TechTimes)

MORSE EXPRESS; New Products & News

I received this informadabale e-mail this morning from 


News from Milestone Technologies, Inc
(Morse Express, Oak Hills Research, and AMECO)
October 31, 2014


-  Professional Analog Multimeter (VOM)

-  Morse Express 2014 Christmas Key

- Inventory Notes and  Odds & Ends

Professional Analog Multimeter (VOM)

Analog multimeters tend to be either very cheap, amost disposable units
that are just accurate enough to check an electrical outlet or battery
voltage, or very expensive lab-quality instruments that are more than
most people need.  Now, finally, there is an alternative    Elenco Model
M1250 provides professional quality features and reliability at a
reasonable price. One of the most notable features is the 20,000
Ohms/Volt input isolation.  There are some things that digital multimeters
just can't do, and, and there are a LOT of things that are easier to see on
an analog VOM. M1250 23 Range VOM $26.50 at

Morse Express 2014 Christmas Key

Our 2014 Christmas Key is on schedule for delivery at the end of
November.  As always, if you have the 2013 key then the same serial
number is reserved for you in 2014.  If you missed out on the 2013 key
please note that we do have some of them left, even a few matching pairs
of 2012-2013 keys.

Print advertizing this year will be in QST, in the January issue (which
ARRL members will receive before Christmas). And we will send out
another newsletter at the end of November when we can open up the
ordering system.  For a sneak peak, go to   A few 2013 and earlier keys are still
available at:

Inventory Notes, and Odds & Ends

Our friend and colleague Neil Hecht at Almost All digital electronics  is
recovering from a serious illness and is not accepting orders until further
notice.  We have limited stocks at
Please join us in wishing Neil a speedy and complete recovery.

The following Nye Viking Speed-X keys are in stock:

Other key inventories are in good shape, with almost all Palm Radio,
GHD,  Hi-Mound and Scheunemann models in stock:

All of the Oak Hills Research kits and accessories are available at, and we have good stocks of the AMECO products
including the preamplifiers and the code practice ocillators, at

Our web site has been undergoing some emergency maintenance over the
last two weeks but I'm told everything is in good shape now.  Of course if
you have any problems with the web site you can call us on 303-752-3382
between 10am and 6pm MST.  Our office will be closed between
November 17th and November 21st  but the web site and email should be
working during that time and we will catch up as quickly as possible
when we return.  Your patience is appreciated.

As always, pictures and more information are available on the Milestone
Technologies web sites (Morse Express, Oak Hills Research, and

Please use our secure on-line ordering facilities or call
1-877-DOT DASH (877-368-3274) or 1-866-OHR-KITS (866-647-5487)
TOLL FREE to order by phone.  And feel free to call me
personally on (303) 752-3382 for more information about any of our
products or services.

Marshall Emm, N1FN

Milestone Technologies,
Morse Express, OHR, and AMECO.
10691 E Bethany Drive STE 800
Aurora CO 80014
Phone: (303)752-3382

"Everything for the Morse Enthusiast"

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Michigan PRB -1 Call to Action – Michigan Senate

To the hams of Michigan:

Subject: Michigan PRB -1 Call to Action – Michigan Senate

On September 16, 2014, members of the Michigan PRB -1 Committee
attended a Senate Hearing in Lansing regarding Senate Bill 0493. We are
extremely pleased to report that SB 0493 Substitute S-2 to codify the
language of 47 CFR Part 97.15 into state law was unanimously passed out
of the Energy and Technology Committee. You can see SB 0493 S-2 on our
PRB-1 website located here:

It is time for us to begin our letter writing campaign targeting our
Michigan Senators in a effort to encourage them to look closely at SB
0493 and to vote in favor of the bill when it comes up for a vote on
the Senate floor. A very important part of communication with our
elected officials is that we need to keep our focus on the positive
side. This is not the place to discuss his or her voting record or what
other legislation they have supported or not supported. It is vital that
we stay on topic and deal with only the subject at hand.

The appropriate documentation has been prepared on our Michigan PRB-1
website located at and you can read more and
find sample letters there. 

It is very important that we concentrate ONLY on the Senate right now.
When and if the Senate passes the bill, then we will change the
emphasis to the members of the House. The letters are identical except
for the appropriate changes to reflect where the letters are going. 

All you need to do is to copy the prepared letter from our website, add
your Senator’s information and your information to the letter and
email it to your Senator asking for his or her support. You can find
out who your Senator is and how to reach him or her here:

The website noted above will give you a direct email address for your
Senator. When your letter is customized with your Senator’s
information and your information, you can send your letter direction to
your Senator. The lack of a physical signature is not important here. By
the very nature of the method of contacting them, an actual signature is
difficult to accomplish.

Please send me a copy of your letter ( as this will help
our committee to gauge our effectiveness.

If things work the way we would like them to, our efforts will turn to
the Michigan House once our bill passes the Senate. And when and if our
bill passes the House, then we will turn our attention to the
Governor’s office to urge him to sign our bill into law.

This is the very best opportunity we have to make a difference for the
hams of Michigan. Talk it up, and step forward to make sure that your
friends (ham and non-ham) have the information and that they are
encouraged to act. We need to add our voices to this bill to help
ensure that our representatives act on our behalf.

Thank you in advance and 73!

Larry, WB8R 

Michigan ARRL Section Manager

ARRL Michigan Section
Section Manager: Larry Camp, WB8R

To unsubscribe from messages, go to:

My Stamp Collecting Blog

Counter Added January 1, 2011

free counters


The A index [ LOW is GOOD ]

  • 1 to 6 is BEST
  • 7 to 9 is OK
  • 11 or more is BAD

Represents the overall geomagnetic condition of the ionosphere ("Ap" if averaged from the Kp-Index) (an average of the eight 3-hour K-Indices) ('A' referring to amplitude) over a given 24 hour period, ranging (linearly) typically from 1-100 but theoretically up to 400.

A lower A-Index generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; a low & steady Ap-Index generally suggest good propagation on the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.

SFI index [ HIGH is GOOD ]

  • 70 NOT GOOD
  • 80 GOOD
  • 90 BETTER
  • 100+ BEST

The measure of total radio emissions from the sun at 10.7cm (2800 MHz), on a scale of 60 (no sunspots) to 300, generally corresponding to the sunspot level, but being too low in energy to cause ionization, not related to the ionization level of the Ionosphere.

Higher Solar Flux generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; Solar Flux rarely affects the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.

K index [ LOW is GOOD ]

  • 0 or 1 is BEST
  • 2 is OK
  • 3 or more is BAD
  • 5 is VERY VERY BAD

The overall geomagnetic condition of the ionosphere ("Kp" if averaged over the planet) over the past 3 hours, measured by 13 magnetometers between 46 & 63 degrees of latitude, and ranging quasi-logarithmically from 0-9. Designed to detect solar particle radiation by its magnetic effect. A higher K-index generally means worse HF conditions.

A lower K-Index generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; a low & steady Kp-Index generally suggest good propagation on the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.

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