Monday, April 13, 2009
Slight risk of severe weather for central north to northeast Texas, central south Oklahoma, southeast Louisiana, central to south Mississippi and southwest Alabama to the 13th. Slight risk of severe weather for southeast Louisiana, Mississippi, northeast Arkansas, southeast Missouri, central to southern Illinois, central to southern Indiana, central to western Kentucky, central to western Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, central to southern South Carolina, and central to northern Florida the 13th to the 14th.
Flooding likely, possible, or occurring in South Dakota, North Dakota, west northwest Minnesota, central west and southeast Illinois, northeast and northwest Indiana, central west and northeast Illinois, central north Missouri, northeast Texas, central to south Georgia, and central north Florida to the 17th.
Moderate fire danger for far south Texas the 12th to the 13th. Critical fire danger for southwest California, western Arizona, and southern Nevada the 14th to the 15th. Critical fire danger for far southeast California, central to southern Arizona, central to southern and northeast New Mexico and western Texas the 15th to the 16th. Critical fire danger for southeast Arizona, the southeast 1/2 of New Mexico and western Texas the 16th to the 17th.
Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos Islands
A new eruption began at Fernandina volcano on 10th April 2009 at 2200 hr. The seismic station at Puerto Ayora did not record any earthquakes associated with the eruption. The eruption was observed by rangers from Galapagos National Park, and a tourist boat in the early hours of Saturday morning (local time). An eruption column with low ash content was visible on satellite images extending 300 km west of the volcano. Satellite images show several hotspots at Fernandina volcano, which may indicate lava flows. Personnel from the Galapagos National Park on Isabela Island are making a flight over the volcano, to ascertain more precisely the location of the eruption centre, and assess the extent of the lava flows and their likely impact
fauna and flora of the area. The last eruption of Fernandina volcano occurred in 2005, when lava flows originated from a fissure on the south-eastern flank of the volcano and descend without reaching the sea.
HOW TO READ PROPAGATION NUMBERS
The A index [ LOW is GOOD ]
- 1 to 6 is BEST
- 7 to 9 is OK
- 11 or more is BAD
Represents the overall geomagnetic condition of the ionosphere ("Ap" if averaged from the Kp-Index) (an average of the eight 3-hour K-Indices) ('A' referring to amplitude) over a given 24 hour period, ranging (linearly) typically from 1-100 but theoretically up to 400.
A lower A-Index generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; a low & steady Ap-Index generally suggest good propagation on the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.
SFI index [ HIGH is GOOD ]
- 70 NOT GOOD
- 80 GOOD
- 90 BETTER
- 100+ BEST
The measure of total radio emissions from the sun at 10.7cm (2800 MHz), on a scale of 60 (no sunspots) to 300, generally corresponding to the sunspot level, but being too low in energy to cause ionization, not related to the ionization level of the Ionosphere.
Higher Solar Flux generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; Solar Flux rarely affects the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.
K index [ LOW is GOOD ]
- 0 or 1 is BEST
- 2 is OK
- 3 or more is BAD
- 5 is VERY VERY BAD
The overall geomagnetic condition of the ionosphere ("Kp" if averaged over the planet) over the past 3 hours, measured by 13 magnetometers between 46 & 63 degrees of latitude, and ranging quasi-logarithmically from 0-9. Designed to detect solar particle radiation by its magnetic effect. A higher K-index generally means worse HF conditions.
A lower K-Index generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; a low & steady Kp-Index generally suggest good propagation on the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.
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