Tuesday, February 15, 2011
Sunspot Cycle 24 Activity and Space Weather Report
NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded an intense flash of extreme ultraviolet radiation.
movie formats: 5 MB gif, 1.3 MB iPad, 0.6 MB iPhone
X-flares are the strongest type of solar flare, and this is the first such eruption of new Solar Cycle 24. In addition to flashing Earth with UV radiation, the explosion also hurled a coronal mass ejection (CME) in our direction. The expanding cloud may be seen in this movie from NASA's STEREO-B spacecraft. Geomagnetic storms are possible when the CME arrives 36 to 48 hours hence. Stay tuned for updates.
This plasma filament above the Sun erupted as seen in this video by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The eruption is in the upper right region of the solar disc. After it erupts, look to the left of center, at the top, for another plasma ejection. This view is at the 304-Angstrom and 193-Angstrom wavelengths. (Best viewed in Full Screen HD - full-screen)
The following video captures the massively large plasma filament 'erupion' from 12 December 2010.
A huge filament above the Sun erupted in an amazing display as seen in this video by the Solar Dynamics Observatory at approximately 1535 UTC (Dec 6, 2010). The eruption is in the lower left region of the solar disc, and you will see it toward the end of the video. This view is at the 304-Angstrom wavelength. (Best viewed in Full Screen HD - full-screen)
The next movie is of the Sun from Nov 15 to Dec 6 2010, as seen by SDO AIA at the 171 and 304 Angstrom wavelengths:
A rotation view of the full solar disc, as seen by the Solar Dynamics Observatory between November 15 and December 6, 2010. The view is a combination of the 171-Angstrom wavelength and 304-Angstrom wavelength filters of the SDO AIA instruments.
Notice the huge plasma "snakes" in the southern hemisphere (at several periods, including the very end of the rotation). These plasma filaments are incredibly large!
HOW TO READ PROPAGATION NUMBERS
The A index [ LOW is GOOD ]
- 1 to 6 is BEST
- 7 to 9 is OK
- 11 or more is BAD
Represents the overall geomagnetic condition of the ionosphere ("Ap" if averaged from the Kp-Index) (an average of the eight 3-hour K-Indices) ('A' referring to amplitude) over a given 24 hour period, ranging (linearly) typically from 1-100 but theoretically up to 400.
A lower A-Index generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; a low & steady Ap-Index generally suggest good propagation on the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.
SFI index [ HIGH is GOOD ]
- 70 NOT GOOD
- 80 GOOD
- 90 BETTER
- 100+ BEST
The measure of total radio emissions from the sun at 10.7cm (2800 MHz), on a scale of 60 (no sunspots) to 300, generally corresponding to the sunspot level, but being too low in energy to cause ionization, not related to the ionization level of the Ionosphere.
Higher Solar Flux generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; Solar Flux rarely affects the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.
K index [ LOW is GOOD ]
- 0 or 1 is BEST
- 2 is OK
- 3 or more is BAD
- 5 is VERY VERY BAD
The overall geomagnetic condition of the ionosphere ("Kp" if averaged over the planet) over the past 3 hours, measured by 13 magnetometers between 46 & 63 degrees of latitude, and ranging quasi-logarithmically from 0-9. Designed to detect solar particle radiation by its magnetic effect. A higher K-index generally means worse HF conditions.
A lower K-Index generally suggests better propagation on the 10, 12, 15, 17, & 20 Meter Bands; a low & steady Kp-Index generally suggest good propagation on the 30, 40, 60, 80, & 160 Meter Bands.
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